Environmental Ethics
and Public Policy
Ernest Partridge, Ph.D

HOME PAGE                             
    Philosophy and Religion
    Ethics, Moral Issues, the Law
    The Environment

On Politics
    The Crisis
    Foreign Relations, War, Peace
    The Media
    The Elections
    Civil Liberties and Dissent
    Republicans & the Right
    Democrats & the Left
    Lies, Propaganda & Corruption
    Culture War & Religious Right
    Coup d'Etat, 2000

Published Papers

Unpublished Papers

Reviews, Lectures, etc.    

Internet Publications


Lecture Topics

Conscience of a Progressive
    (A Book in Progress)

A Dim View of Libertarianism

Rawls and the Duty to Posterity
    (Doctoral Dissertation)

The Ecology Project

For Environmental Educators

The Russian Environment

    (Critiques of Post Modernism)

Notes from the Brink
    (Peace Studies)

The Gadfly's Bio Sketch

The Gadfly's Publications

The Online Gadfly: Editorial Policy

The Gadfly's E-Mail: gadfly@igc.org

Classical Guitar:
"The Other Profession




Romney, Mormonism and "The Religious Test."


By Ernest Partridge

November 1, 2012


A revision of "About This Mormonism Thing"
which was published at this site on December 18, 2007.



No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States. 

Article Six, Constitution of the United States


One might suppose that when Willard “Mitt” Romney announced his candidacy the presidency of the United States, there was considerable joy in Salt Lake City among the leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.

I suspect that by now those leaders may be having some second thoughts.

For while it was a good thing for the American public to learn about the Mormon faith, Church leaders are now discovering that it is possible to have too much of a good thing.

The thirteen Articles of Faith of the Mormon religion enumerate a set of beliefs, some of which are quite consistent with traditional Christianity, and others which, while unique to Mormonism (e.g., the Book of Mormon), are not outlandish or immediately offensive to most ordinary Christians. (The Articles of Faith were written by the Mormon founder, Joseph Smith, to a Chicago publisher, John Wentworth, in 1842). The Articles say nothing about God once being a mortal human and being one among many Gods, about the brotherhood of Jesus and Satan, about God inhabiting a planet called “Kolob,” or about the “magic underwear” that devout Mormons are required to wear, etc. Nor are you likely to hear about such things from the Mormon missionaries that might appear at your front door.

However, it now seems naive to have supposed that these and other bizarre Mormon doctrines would not be brought to light by Mitt Romney’s political rivals and that they would become material for comedians.

Many faithful Mormons are surprised at the astonishment and derision that some LDS beliefs provoke among the general public. This surprise is likely due to the simple and universal fact that beliefs that are taught in childhood and shared in a community of believers are regarded by the faithful as “obvious” and “ordinary,” while at the same time those same beliefs are considered, “from the outside,” to be weird and outlandish.

I can testify to this fact, for I have experienced Mormon doctrine from both the inside and the outside. From childhood, through high school, I shared Mitt Romney’s faith in the Mormon religion. Then that faith totally vanished during my freshman year in college – at Brigham Young University, of all places!


If I might be permitted a few autobiographical remarks, this is how it happened.

My high school education was outstanding. I was among a few students selected to attend a “demonstration” school attached to a state teachers’ college, where we were taught by college professors. There I acquired a precociously secular, scientific, and scholarly perspective on human history and institutions. At the same time, my parents (both graduates of BYU and both post-graduates of Columbia University) saw to it that my two brothers and I regularly attended LDS Sunday services. They accepted the conventional view that “Sunday School” was essential to a child’s moral development – a view that I have since come to seriously doubt.

Accordingly, during my adolescence, I carried about in my head, a bifurcated mind. There was “the weekday mind” of ancient dinosaurs, of evolution, of American Indians as migrants from Asia, and above all, of skepticism, scientific discipline and critical thought. Then there was “the Sunday mind” of the Creation in 4004 BC, of the Garden of Eden and Noah’s flood, of the Indians as migrant Israelites (the “Lamanites”), and of faith trumping “man’s reason” – faith: “the substance of things hoped-for, the evidence of things not seen.” (Hebrews, 11:1). I somehow managed the alternation of mind-sets from weekdays to weekends to weekdays again, without undue strain.

But at BYU the shifting of mind-sets from a required religion classroom to a science classroom to the library to the study hall proved to be untenable. At the end of my sophomore year, I transferred to the University of Utah and majored in Philosophy. Courses in geology, anthropology, new-world archeology, etc., pounded the final nails into the coffin of my childhood faith. In the words of the apostle, Paul: “when I was a child, ... I thought as a child. But when I became a man, I put away childish things.” (I Corinthians, 13:11) In my mind, the Latter-Day Saints, formerly “us,” became “them,” and since then I have never looked back. (Accounts of this “de-conversion” may be found in my unpublished "Farewell to Mormonism -- No Regrets,"  “A Peculiar People”
and Religion, Education and Morality: A Dialogue All at this website).

Today, the polygamous man-God of Kolob, the magic underwear, the Hebrew-Indians, the translating peep-stones and the golden plates, the farm boy and the angel, “the curse of Cain” upon all people with any African ancestors, baptism for the dead (the Creator of the earth and all human souls being incapable of saving those souls all by himself), etc. – all this and more seem as bizarre to me as they do to most non-Mormons. (The essential tenets of Mormon theology are presented in
this remarkable cartoon narrative of unknown origin. It is generally accurate, although there are a few identifiable minor errors. For example, Mormons do not believe that God and Mrs. God came to earth as Adam and Eve). 

But equally bizarre to me is the Catholic dogma of transubstantiation (the ritual cannibalism of God’s body), the argument that birth control is contrary to “natural law,” the protestant fundamentalist beliefs in biblical literalism, young-earth creationism, and the doctrine of “the rapture,” the orthodox Jewish ban against eating shellfish or wearing mixed fabrics, and the Islamic belief that the Angel Gabriel handed the Koran to Mohammed. Much worse is the plain immorality of many traditional religious beliefs. These include the belief that the genocide, murder and mayhem chronicled in the Old Testament were condoned and even commanded by the Lord God, that God had ordered that disobedient children, blasphemers, unchaste young women (but not men), and those who toil on the Sabbath be put to death, and that a loving God created billions of souls, all but a few thousand of whom He has condemned and will condemn to eternal damnation and torment. Among those condemned are authentic “secular” saints and martyrs such as Socrates, Marcus Aurelius, Galileo, Voltaire, Gandhi, Jefferson, Sakharov, who somehow failed in their lifetimes to agree with Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell and to accept Jesus as their personal Lord and Savior.


We Americans are traditionally a tolerant people, who believe that one’s personal religious faith should not disqualify one from public office. It is so stated in Article Six of our Constitution: “no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.”

Until recently, I endorsed this pronouncement without qualification. Now, after eight years of George Bush’s “faith-based” administration, followed by the continuing intrusion of religious dogmas into politics by the religious right, I have reservations. Thus, I find the prospect of a Mitt Romney administration to be unsettling, as I might be similarly concerned by a presidency by some of his unsuccessful rivals such as Mike Huckabee or Rick Santorum. At the very least, the question of a “religious test” for public office deserves some careful scrutiny.

The issue articulates around the meaning of “religious test.” The term can be interpreted negatively: “no Catholics, Jews, Moslems, or atheists need apply.” Or it can be interpreted positively: “these offices are open exclusively to born-again evangelical Christians” (or other religious persuasion). Article Six of the Constitution notwithstanding, there is, practically speaking, a religious test for the Presidency and for membership in Congress; no self-professed atheist has ever occupied the White House, and only one admitted non-believer is now in Congress (Pete Stark of California), although there may be a few more who associate themselves with a religious denomination out of political necessity.

Does “religious test” refer to an individual’s religious affiliation, or to his or her religious beliefs? Despite the close correlation between affiliation and belief, the distinction is crucial. Exclusion from public office on grounds of religious affiliation is a giant step toward theocracy and the establishment of a state religion. The framers of the Constitution were wise to forbid it.

But once you have identified a person’s religious affiliation, what do you have? Perhaps, not much. Consider, for example, “Mormonism.” There are reportedly over twelve million Mormons. Among them are faithful Mormons like Mitt Romney, with uncompromising “testimonies” of the truth of their beliefs in “the restored Gospel of Jesus Christ,” of the Book of Mormon, of the divine mission of Joseph Smith, and of the divine authority of the “prophet, seer and revelator” in Salt Lake City, who leads the LDS Church. There are, I would guess, at least as many “social Mormons,” who have an abiding respect for the history and traditions of the Church and who enjoy the weekend company of other Mormons, while at the same time rejecting the LDS theology. “Social Mormons” admire, as do I, the strong family values, the integrity, and the in-group solidarity and compassion that is conspicuous among the Mormons. But they may be much less impressed with the indifference of the Church and its members to social and economic injustice. Many of my much-admired professors at the University of Utah were non-believing “social Mormons.”  So too, as I was eventually to discover, were my parents.

And finally, because it is extremely difficult to remove one’s name from the membership rosters of the Church, those rolls include individuals who are totally alienated from the Church. When the LDS Church proclaims that there are more than twelve million Mormons, the Church no doubt counts me among them, although I have entered a Mormon church just twice in the last forty years, each time for the funeral services of my parents.

So when Jon Meacham of Newsweek writes that “the world’s nearly 13 million [Mormons] ... believe that God ... [revealed] the Book of Mormon,” Meacham and Newsweek are flatly wrong.

Because John Kennedy was apparently a “social Catholic” rather than an uncompromising believer in the absolute authority of the Pope and the Vatican, his affirmation of the separation of church and state was quite credible and thus he was fully qualified to serve as President of the United States.

Accordingly, an individual’s religious affiliation, per se, should not disqualify one from public office. But should a person’s religious beliefs enter into a public discussion of that person’s qualification for office? Here the issue becomes complicated and controversial, and the distinction between religious affiliation and religious belief comes into play.

Suppose a candidate for public office identifies himself as a believer in the ancient Aztec religion, and thus an advocate of ritual human sacrifice to the Sun God. In such a case, clearly the vast majority of Americans would say that he is unqualified for public office. I’d venture that those who signed the Constitution would agree. However, I would argue that the correct focus of this objection would not be to his religious affiliation but rather to his public advocacy of human sacrifice.

The same argument would apply, I suggest, to those who would promote policies of burning witches, of trial by combat, and of capital punishment for disobedient children, homosexuals, blasphemers, and toilers on the Sabbath. True, all such policies issue from religious conviction not to mention the Bible, but it is the specific policies, not the general religious orientation, that should be of most immediate relevance.

What if a Roman Catholic proclaimed that if elected, he would do his utmost to outlaw all birth control drugs and devices, “because the Pope tells me to do so.” If so, then that person should not hold public office in the United States. Not because of a “religious test” against that candidate because of his Catholic faith but rather because of his attempt to “establish” Catholicism as the ultimate source and sanction of secular U.S. law (contrary to the First Amendment to the Constitution) and to impose his religious beliefs upon citizens that do not share these beliefs.

Similarly, if a candidate of any religious persuasion were to suggest that persons of other faiths, or no faith, must be given a diminished citizenship status in our republic, then that candidate likewise disregards the establishment clause of the first amendment. Those who insist that “this is a Christian nation” are of such a type, as is Mitt Romney when he asserts that he would not appoint a Moslem to high office in his administration.

Finally, suppose a believer in “the end times” proposes to do nothing about global warming, to abolish the Environmental Protection Agency and all environmental protection laws, and to invest nothing in alternative “green” energy sources. He proposes all this because, like Ronald Reagan’s Interior Secretary, James Watt, he devoutly believes that Jesus will soon return to renew the earth, thus making all such policies unnecessary. Again, such a candidate should be judged as unsuited for public office because of his policies, and not because of his religious affiliation. In fact, many evangelical Christians, such as Jimmy Carter, believing as they do in responsible “stewardship” of God’s creation, have an opposite point of view.

Having thus separated a candidate’s religious affiliation from his public policies, I do not wish to suggest that religious faith is irrelevant to one’s conduct in public office. Quite the contrary. If a candidate wishes to tell the world that he intends to be guided in public office by his religious convictions, then a voter is fully entitled to examine those convictions and to speculate as to the behavior and policies that might issue from those convictions. As we have seen, the professed religious convictions of George Bush, of his appointees to high office, and of his supporters in the religious right, have had profound effects upon public policies and legislation regarding global warming, energy, scientific research and development, public health, and foreign policy towards Islamic nations.

With these considerations in mind: What about a Christian fundamentalist who does not accept evolution or the scientific account of the age of the earth, and who believes the Bible, from Genesis through Revelation, to be the inerrant word of God? This is not a fanciful question. In a 2008 debate three of the nine Republican candidates raised their hands when asked who among them did not believe in evolution. One of them, Mike Huckabee, was a strong contender throughout the primary season. Another evolution denier, Sarah Palin, was of course the GOP Vice Presidential nominee in 2008. Palin also dismissed global warming as based on "snake oil science," a view shared by most fundamentalists and apparently every Republican Senator.

This is not the sort of leader that the United States requires at this crucial moment in the nation’s and the world’s history. As Al Gore correctly warned us in his Nobel Prize speech, we are facing a planetary emergency. Evidence of rapid and radical climate change comes from data samples that are thousands and millions of years old. Remedial action must take long-term ecological consequences into account. Resources, information and initiatives from the life sciences are urgently needed, and evolution is the central coordinating concept of the biological sciences. The last thing we need in the White House is someone who denies evolution, who believes that the earth is less than ten thousand years old, and who believes that inerrant wisdom resides in a collection of ancient texts by unknown authors.

What About Mitt Romney? Mitt Romney is a man of uncompromising faith in his “restored gospel” and in its living prophet, Thomas Monson, the President of the LDS Church. Perhaps Romney believes that he can govern independently of the doctrines of his church and the guidance of its leaders, but I am not convinced. This is a church that proclaims, “when the prophet [LDS President] has spoken, the thinking has been done.” I’d prefer a president who continues to think after an old man in Salt Lake City has had his say.

Romney’s firm grasp on the “iron rod” of LDS doctrine (a Book of Mormon allusion) is not replicated in his many and often contradictory political and economic policy pronouncements. Far from it. His alternating, weather-vane endorsements and rejections of positions on abortion, gay marriage, etc. have become notorious. We know that Mitt Romney is a faithful and believing Mormon. But what else is he? He gives us little guidance as to his position on public issues, or as to how he would perform as President. In any case, if you don’t like his political position, just be patient. Like Seattle weather, it’s bound to change.

Romney’s so-called “JFK speech” in Texas in 2007 was alarming to say the least, and had the opposite intention and effect than did Kennedy’s. Bill Curry in The Huffington Post summarized it well: “Kennedy reassured evangelicals that though his faith was different from theirs he’d never impose it. Romney told them his faith wasn’t so different and that in any event he’d be happy to help impose theirs.” Romney, who has announced that Moslems have no place in his administration, effectively demoted non-believers (secularists) to second-class citizenship when he asserted that “freedom requires religion just as religion requires freedom. Freedom and religion endure together, or perish together.” By implication, the irreligious and the non-religious are enemies of freedom.

In that same speech, Romney warned that “in recent years, the notion of the separation of church and state has been taken by some well beyond its original meaning.” He did not spell out that “original meaning,” nor did he explain how he intends to undo this allegedly excessive separation – how, that is, he would reunite church and state in a Romney administration.

I wonder if Romney has given much thought to the meaning and implications of his reassurances regarding the role of religion in American political life.

I can report that this “secularist” is not reassured.

Faith and dogma have got us into our global trap. Trained intelligence, education, critical thinking and courageous political initiative must lead us out.

These essential assets have been in short supply in this political season.

Copyright 2007 and 2012 by Ernest Partridge


Replies to the original essay, with rejoinders:

January 23, 2008.

Internet responses to my essay, "
About this "Mormonism" Thing" (December 18, 2007) were heated, voluminous, and for the most part, favorable. Two that were not were from faithful Mormons. However, because they were sincere and thoughtful, they received careful and extended responses from me, which you will find below.

But before we get to them, I am including here my response to a query from the producers of the four-hour PBS Frontline series, "The Mormons" that was broadcast last April. It was, and is, an outstanding piece of broadcast journalism which I highly recommend. (
The series can be seen at this PBS website).

This, in part, was the question I was asked:

At the end of the 19th century, the Mormon Church was a provincial backwater and today it is an international powerhouse. In the 19th century, the Mormons were seen as a licentious group of theocrats; today they are running for President. At the start of the 20th century, the church set their financial house in order and adjusted to secular politics. They've faced up to some of the most important modern challenges -- lifted the ban on blacks in the priesthood, developed their own system of welfare -- both for their own people, but also for victims of Katrina and the Tsunami. All this while, as you know, the church has grown increasingly conservative. Why? What has driven Utah from the independent conservatism of Theodore Roosevelt to become the reddest of the red states?

My answer:

My best guess about the LDS official turn to the right:

  • The religious right is far more concerned with (personal) "virtue" than with (social) "justice." Hence the emphasis on chastity, sobriety, anti-gay, anti-abortion, with a neglect of such issues as poverty, economic injustice, racial ethnic and sex discrimination, international law and peace. This is a pattern that is long established in Mormon history.

  • The extraordinary success of the Mormon financial "empire" has oriented the Church toward the business community. Paraphrasing Calvin Coolidge, "the business of the LDS Church is business." This emphasis inclines the LDS church and membership to the GOP.

  • Combine this with theocratic dogmatism and anti-intellectualism. I seem to recall an oft-cited quotation from the LDS general authorities: "When the prophet has spoken, the thinking has been done." ("Prophet" meaning the LDS presidents, past and present). Science and scholarship have not been friendly to the LDS Church: e.g., contra biblical literalism (cf. evolution and historical geology), American archeology (cf. The Book of Mormon), critical historical scholarship (vs. "the Mormon myth").

  • The US and the world are changing ever more rapidly, and out of the control of the church. Bush claims to be "born again" and the GOP supports an "establishment" of religion in secular life and government. This is appealing to the LDS leadership and members.

  • Sociologists will tell you that, almost inevitably, radical and innovative religious and social movements, if they are to survive, must become institutionalized, with articulated rules, leadership structures, lines of authority, an "identity" recognized and defended by both leaders and rank-and-file members -- in a word, they become "conservative." This was true of early Christianity, of Protestant denominations, of Soviet Communism and other communist states (cf. Cuba).

That's my best take on LDS "conservatism." I hope that it is helpful. For more of my ideas about the alliance between fundamental Christians and the secular right, see my "Suckers for Jesus," the second section of Chapter 20 of my book in progress, Conscience of a Progressive.

Next, an exchange that was published in OpEdNews in response to my essay:

Dear Dr. Ernest Partridge,

Your amazing rant against the religion of your fathers betrays the fact that while you may have scaled the Olympian peaks of your chosen profession (philosophy) you have never bothered to "waste" much intellectual effort on a serious investigation of Mormonism. Your Loony-tunes summary of the "basics" sounds, in fact, like it was cribbed from some anti-Mormon site.

Perhaps your disdain for Governor Romney is because you know that he is a very intelligent and accomplished person and you feel threatened that he hasn't come to the same conclusions, philosophic, religious, and political, as you?

Romney's faith cannot be explained by stupidity. (Google [Mormon education religiosity].) How could it possibly be that 75% of LDS scientists have a very strong belief that Joseph Smith was inspired by God, with an additional 12% having a "strong" belief? (For what it's worth, I'm among the 75%.)

As for the "great difficulty" of having your name removed from the records of the Church, google [Mormon remove name] "I'm feeling lucky!" Yes, there are indeed plenty of ex-Mormons willing to support you in the Herculean task of composing, printing, and mailing a letter!

Before you mail that letter, however, I beg you to exercise your synapses a bit more and spend a few days seriously investigating the religion for which your noble great-great-grandfather, Edward Partridge made such great sacrifices.

You might start by googling [alma 36 chiasmus]. Don't believe in miracles? Surely it is a miracle that in 1830 an unschooled 29-year old farmer on the American frontier produced such a chapter -- and such a book!

If you find Alma 36 in any way intellectually stimulating, then take one more step. Try the suggestion of Nephi and "liken all scripture" unto yourself, for your "profit and learning." (1 Nephi 19:23). After all, your article does suggest that you are pretty much in the same path that Alma was in before his life-changing experience.

If you can put yourself in Alma's shoes, then perhaps the core of the message to his son, which is at the center of the "chi" (X), will sink deep into your heart:

"And now, for three days and for three nights was I racked, even with the pains of a damned soul.

"And it came to pass that as I was thus racked with torment, while I was harrowed up by the memory of my many sins, behold, I remembered also to have heard my father prophesy unto the people concerning the coming of one Jesus Christ, a Son of God, to atone for the sins of the world.

"Now, as my mind caught hold upon this thought, I cried within my heart: O Jesus, thou Son of God, have mercy on me, who am in the gall of bitterness, and am encircled about by the everlasting chains of death.

"And now, behold, when I thought this, I could remember my pains no more; yea, I was harrowed up by the memory of my sins no more.

"And oh, what joy, and what marvelous light I did behold; yea, my soul was filled with joy as exceeding as was my pain!" (Alma 36:16-20)

I don't know how much religiosity is programmed into Edward Partridge's Y-Chromosome, but since that chromosome is contained in every cell of your body, you have the potential to undergo a powerful physical and spiritual transformation.

Edward Partridge lives on in the spirit world, of course, and surely he is aware of you, and praying for you. May the spirit of Elijah yet work its wonder on you and turn your heart to the promises made to your fathers. (Malachi 4:5-6, 3 Nephi 25:5-6, Joseph Smith History 1:38-39, D&C 110:13-16)

With sincere best wishes,

Tracy Hall Jr
In OpEdNews.

Ernest Partridge replies to Tracy Hall:

Without citation, your statistic that "75% of LDS scientists have a very strong belief..." doesn't impress me very much. Who conducted this study? What was the sample, and sampling method? As you state it, this statistic is strangely circular. An "LDS scientist" would, almost by definition, be assumed to have such a belief. I would be much more interested to find out how many scientists have, as a result of their scientific education, left the Church. Unfortunately, I know of no such study. I am personally acquainted with many such persons, but of course, anecdotal evidence is also not very impressive.

That there are some accomplished scientists that are also devout Mormons is also a known fact, which I will freely stipulate. I've known a few of these also. Dr. Harvey Fletcher, a pioneer in acoustic physics and audio technology, was a member of our New Jersey ward, when I was a child.  The physicist Dr. Henry Eyring, as Graduate School Dean of the University of Utah, signed my Masters Thesis.  The Dean who signed my Doctoral Dissertation, and coincidentally also served on my dissertation committee, was an agnostic "social Mormon," Dr. Sterling McMurrin.  (McMurrin once remarked to me, "if you want your child to have a graduate education but also remain true in the faith, then have him study the physical sciences or engineering. But be sure he stays clear of the social sciences, and above all, history.")  But all this is moot. I don't base my fundamental convictions on the testimonials of others.

Reports and summaries of extensive scientific studies, on the other hand, I take very seriously. And studies of new world archeology, physical anthropology and linguistics have convinced me that the Book of Mormon is not authentic. All claims to the contrary are from LDS sources. In "Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought," Summer, 1973, new world archeologist Michael Coe wrote: "as far as I know there is not one professionally trained archaeologist, who is not a Mormon, who sees any scientific justification for believing the [the Book of Mormon accounts] to be true,... nothing, absolutely nothing, has ever shown up in any New World excavation which would suggest to a dispassionate observer that the Book of Mormon... is a historical document relating to the history of early migrants to our hemisphere." (pp.42, 46)

Coe's report is corroborated by
this statement by the Anthropology Department of the Smithsonian Institution:   "Smithsonian archeologists see no direct connection between the archeology of the New World and the subject matter of [the Book of Mormon]... Certainly there were no contacts with the ancient Egyptians, Hebrews, or other peoples of Western Asian and the Near East." Perhaps you are aware of this statement. If not, you should be.

The Smithsonian Institute statement reports that "American Indians had no wheat, barley, oats, millet, rice, cattle, pigs, chickens, horses, donkeys, camels before 1492." (New world camels and horses became extinct about 10,000 years ago). In addition, "iron, steel, glass and silk were not used in the New World before 1492." The Smithsonian might have added that the wheel and axle had no practical application in the New World, and are only found as Inca toys.

Steel, iron, wheat, horses, chariots, etc. are all mentioned in the Book of Mormon. Yet not one steel artifact, not one chariot wheel, not one pre-Columbian horse bone has been uncovered in the New World. Surely, if wheat and other near-east plants had been cultivated prior to 1492, they would have survived the extermination of the Jaredites and the Nephites. Yet, not a grain nor a leaf is in evidence. Add to all that, the DNA studies which have conclusively established the Asiatic origin of the American Indian.

My late friend, Bruce "Utah" Phillips summed it up well:  "The Native Americans are descended from wandering Siberians who could not keep their Bering Strait."

Presumably, you can set all this aside and base your conviction on something called "faith." I can not, for I am fully aware that other "faiths," of equal strength, conflict with yours: faith in Catholicism, in Islam, in the "inerrant Bible," etc. So instead, I turn to evidence.

I do not share your conviction that it would be a "miracle" for Joseph Smith to produce the Book of Mormon. Smith was clearly an extraordinarily intelligent and creative individual. But even if you were to convince me that Joseph Smith could not have written the Book of Mormon, it does not follow that the book is authentic. Oliver Cowdrey and Sidney Rigdon, for example, were well educated, and talk of the Indians as "lost tribes of Israel" was commonplace in the mid-nineteenth century American revival. The Book of Mormon is astonishing, but less than "miraculous."

While I have focused my attention on question of the authenticity of the Book of Mormon, it is only a small part of the inventory of reasons that I can no longer believe the claims of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. I have never written out an extensive account of these reasons. However, I have more to say about my solitary journey away from Mormonism in the unpublished works mentioned in my essay: "A Peculiar People," and "Religion, Education and Morality: A Dialogue."


Ernest Partridge
(In OpEdNews)

Finally, my exchange with a Mormon who wrote a lengthy, point-by-point, rebuttal to the essay
which you can find here, (along with his name which I need not disclose). Two paragraphs from a subsequent e-mail from this critic sets up my reply

He writes:

I would guess that the wrong assumption that's causing you problems is that the LDS religion is false. I do know that this is incorrect, the religion is true. And it's an important point.

If you fight against the Lord's restoration, try to discourage others from it, you will have problems. It's inherent. You can't make the religion false by wishing it were, or by any fiat man can do. And maybe you're finding this out, and it's an irritation.

My reply:

I understand the strength of your convictions -- in the face of overwhelming empirical, historical and scientific evidence to the contrary -- because long ago, I shared them.

It is equally the case that "you can't make the religion TRUE by wishing it were," yet that's the central function of "faith" -- the faith of a catholic priest, of a devout Moslem, of a rapturite fundamentalist, etc. "The substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen." (Hebrews 11:1 -- conventionally believed to be by St. Paul, but textual analysis shows this to be doubtful.
Author unknown).

I respect your faith, understand that it is untouchable, and thus see no point in discussing it with you. I doubt very much that your faith in the LDS religion, which is to say your certainty as to it's "truth," is any more fervent than the contradictory faith of the aforementioned priest, Moslem, rapturite, etc.

"Lo here, lo there."

Given that logical impasse, I have no recourse than to look to the evidence -- historical, scientific, textual, etc. This was the decision that led me away from the LDS faith, during my freshman year at BYU. That evidence led me to conclude that Genesis is, scientifically and historically, bunk, from beginning to end, that there is no independent evidence whatever of the events depicted in the Book of Mormon or of the Semitic origin of the Amerinds. In addition, the butchery and genocide described in the early books of the Old Testament are deeply offensive to my sense of morality, and contrary to the morality of the "minor prophets" (Hosea, Micah, Amos) and most of all, Jesus of Nazareth, which I endorse. A just God would not order, much less condone, the slaughter of the residents of Jericho, the Canaanites, the Mideonites, etc.

Just as I respect your faith, I ask that you respect my perspective.  (And please, don't tell me that my secular/scientific point of view is "just another faith."  It is qualitatively and logically different,   as I argue in my
Why Should We Trust the Scientist?").

You are asking me once again to travel down a road that I have traveled before and have observed and assessed scrupulously and objectively. I have come to a different conclusion than you have. And I see no reason to revisit that road.

"What doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?" (Micah 6:8). No mention here of faith, repentance, baptism, and the laying on of hands.


Ernest Partridge




Dr. Ernest Partridge is a consultant, writer and lecturer in the field of Environmental Ethics and Public Policy. He has taught Philosophy at the University of California, and in Utah, Colorado and Wisconsin. He publishes the website, "The Online Gadfly" (www.igc.org/gadfly) and co-edits the progressive website, "The Crisis Papers" (www.crisispapers.org).  Dr. Partridge can be contacted at: gadfly@igc.org .