Environmental Ethics
and Public Policy
Ernest Partridge, Ph.D
www.igc.org/gadfly

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Published Papers

Unpublished Papers

Reviews, Lectures, etc.    

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Lecture Topics

Conscience of a Progressive
    (A Book in Progress)

Rawls and the Duty to Posterity
    (Doctoral Dissertation)

The Ecology Project

For Environmental Educators

The Russian Environment

NO MO PO MO
    (Critiques of Post Modernism)

Notes from the Brink
    (Peace Studies)

The Gadfly's Bio Sketch

The Gadfly's Publications

The Online Gadfly: Editorial Policy
 


The Gadfly's E-Mail: gadfly@igc.org


Classical Guitar:
"The Other Profession
"

 

 

 

Ernest Partridge's Internet Publications

(Normally published at several websites)

 

Visitors are invited, in fact URGED, to copy and distribute these essays at will. I ask only that you acknowledge the author (Ernest Partridge) and source (www.crisispapers.org or  www.igc.org/gadfly), and include the notice: "Copyright [year of publication] by Ernest Partridge."

Use of copyrighted material that generates income will require both permission of this author and a royalty fee.
 



In the decade from March, 1998 (when I launched this website) through 2010, I wrote and published 250 original essays for the internet.  Many of these essays dealt with timely and newsworthy issues that have since faded from public memory and relevance.  I have excluded many those essays from this list, retaining a few that continue to have some historical interest.  The complete list of internet essays can be found at The Crisis Papers.

 

Internet Essays Listed by Topic

 

The Crisis
Imperialism, Foreign Relations, Iraq War
The Media

The Elections
G. W. Bush and the Bush Administration
Barack Obama and the Obama Administration
Progressivism / Liberalism
Republicans -- Right Wing

 

Civil Liberties -- Dissent
Moral Issues -- The Law
Science, Philosophy and Education
Economics
The Environment 
Lies -- Propaganda -- Corruption
The Culture War -- The Religious Right


 

(Chronological Order Follows Below the Topics)
 

Editor's Choice


Fruit Flies in a Bottle  (September, 2010)
Property Rights and Public Accommodations (July, 2010)
Ayn Rand's Excellent Proposal (March, 2010)
Morality as a Plus-Sum Game:  Why Libertarianism Fails as a Social Policy.  (April, 2010)
Why Liberals are Not Libertarians  (November, 2008)
On Behalf of the Tea Bag Brigades: A Proposal   (April, 2009)
"The Left"  (March, 2009)
Theory vs. Reality: Why Market Absolutism Fails 
(December, 2008)
Election 2008: Who Decides?  The People or the Programmers?  (October 28, 2008)
The Road to Catastrophe   (October 14, 2008)
"That's Just Your Opinion"  (July, 2008)
Evil as the Absence of Empathy   (July, 2008)
Climate Reality Bites the Libertarians  (April 8, 2008)
The Great Regression -- And The Road Back   (March, 2008)
Market Failure: The Back of the Invisible Hand  (June, 2007) 
A Failed Experiment  (June, 2007)
Liberals and Libertarians  (May, 2007)
On the Morality of Science,
  (May, 2007)
Touch Football and Television 
(April, 2007)
The Public Interest and the Limits of Volunteerism  (December, 2006)
The Scorpion, The Frog, and The Corporation (September, 2006)
All The News that Fits the Bush Agenda  (August, 2006)
Where Are Our Heroes Today? ( (June, 2006)
What About the Russians?  Personal Encounters   (June, 2006)
Swords Into Plowshares   (May, 2006)

The 9/11 Conspiracy: A Skeptic’s View   (April, 2006)
"Do You Believe in God?" (April, 2006)
The View from Abroad: A Personal Reflection  (February, 2006)
A Defense of Moral Relativism. (November, 2005)  
Through a Glass, Darkly (November, 2005)

Who Lost New Orleans?   (September, 2005)
Prices and Values  (August, 2005)  
Hinges of History   (July, 2005)
Last Chance for Civilization  (May, 2005)
Why Should I Pay for Someone Else's Education?  (April, 2005)
Right vs. Left: The Elements   (March, 2005) 
"Shut Up!," They Explain.  (February, 2005)
"Creationism" and the Devolution of the Intellect   (January, 2005)  
Letter to a Republican Friend    (August, 2004)
Good for Each, Bad for All.  (June, 2004)  
Consumer or Citizen?   (October, 2003)
Now We Are the Redcoats  (September, 2003)
Privatized Hell   (June, 2003)  
Conscience of a Conservative 
 (April, 2003)
On Patriotism   (February, 2003) 
The Paradoxical Right to Life  (January, 2003)  
The Dragon at the Gate: The Media Problem  (January, 2003)
The Oil Trap (August, 2002)
Is Science Just Another Dogma?  (July, 2002)  
Junk Psychology  (June, 2002)
The Banalization of Genius  (April, 2000)

 

The Crisis

Fruit Flies in a Bottle  (September, 2010)
American, Inc. is Here: Get With the Program.  (January, 2010)
The Road to Catastrophe  (October 14, 2008)
A New Day Dawning   (June 3. 2008)
The Great Regression -- And The Road Back    (March 4, 2008)
The Gulag Comes to America: The Don Siegelman Case  (January 29, 2008)
TO: The Free World – FROM: The American People – RE: HELP! (October 23, 2007)
We've Seen All This Before.  (August, 2007)
Is the Public Finally Beginning to "Get It"? (May, 2007)
And Now What? (November, 2006)
Where Are Our Heroes Today? (June, 2006)
The 9/11 Conspiracy: A Skeptic’s View   (April 25, 2006)
Perception is Reality.  (February 21, 2006)
The Erosion of Trust  (January 10, 2006) 
Bird Flu is Real – and You’re On Your Own. (November, 2005)
The Illusion of Normality (October, 2005)
Hinges of History  (July, 2005)

Last Chance for Civilization  (May, 2005)
Something's Gotta Give   (January, 2005)
Why we must not "Get Over It"  (November, 2004) 
Do We Still Have a Democracy?  (November, 2004)
Symbionts and Parasites  (September, 2004)
The Vulnerable Giant  (February, 2003)
The Oil Trap (August, 2002)
The Late, Great, American Republic... (July, 2003)
Where are the Grownups?  (June, 2003)
Can an Entire Country Go Mad?  (April, 2003)
Blissful Ignorance (May, 2001)

The View from Wonderland  (March, 2003)
Despotism by Accident  (September 2002)
Where's the Outrage?  (June, 2002)

Global Defense  (March, 2002)
 

Imperialism, Foreign Relations, The Iraq War

The War Trap  (December, 2009)
OmiGawd, Not Another Cold War!  A Letter to My Friends in Russia (September, 2008)
Twenty-Twenty Hindsight, Blinded Foresight  (November, 2007)
Oh What a Lovely (Cold) War  (March, 2007)
Only Americans Can Restore America's Honor  (January, 2007)
O Canada!  (August, 2006)
What About the Russians?  Personal Encounters  (June, 2006)
Swords Into Plowshares  (May, 2006)
The View from Abroad: A Personal Reflection  (February, 2006)
The Indelible Evil of this War  (December, 2004)
Now We Are the Redcoats  (September, 2003)
Thoughts on the Eve of a Disaster  (March, 2003)
Forgive U.S. our Trespasses  (May, 2002)
Why Do They Hate Us So Much?  (November, 2001)
The Holy Land  (November, 2001)

Devouring the Seed Grain (August, 1999)
 

The Media

The Big Lie.  (April, 2011)
Nolo Contendere (May, 2010
Pity the Poor Mainstream Media!  (May, 2008)

Kristolnicht: The Decline of The New York Times.  (January, 2008)
Snobocracy: When “The Right People” Run Washington  (December, 2006)
Mainstream Media to Bloggers: Bug Off  (January, 2007)
All The News that Fits the Bush Agenda  (August, 2006)
Pravda on the Potomac  (September, 2004))
The Dragon at the Gate: The Media Problem  (January, 2003)

Don't Give Up on the  Media  (January, 2004)
If it Burns, it Earns  (November, 2003)
After the Internet  (September, 2003)
About Those Polls  (March, 2002)
Following the Light  (March, 2003)
The Press and Party Symbiosis  (November, 2002)
Post-Modern Politics (April, 2001)
The Hijacked Election (November, 2000)

 

The Elections

A Battle is Won, but the War Remains.  (January 6, 2009)
Election 2008: Who Decides?  The People or the Programmers?  (October, 2008)
"Country First?" -- The Question of Loyalty  (October 21, 2008)
The American People are Beginning To Get It.  (November, 2007)
Election Fraud: Where’s the Outrage?  (July, 2007)
Debunking the Debunker.  (June, 2006)
An Appearance of Guilt  (March, 2006)

“Evidence? We Don’t Want Your Stinkin’ Evidence!”  (January, 2006)
In 2006, Election Fraud is the Keystone Issue. (January, 2006)
"Shut Up!," They Explain.  (February, 2005)
Has the Case for Election Fraud been Refuted?  (January, 2005) 
The Democrats as "The Washington Generals"  (December, 2004)

Why we must not "Get Over It"  (November, 2004)
Do We Still Have a Democracy?  (November, 2004)
Defeating a "Touch-Screen" Theft of the Election.  (November, 2004)
The Greatest Story Never Told  (March, 2003)
Don't Just Get Mad, Get Smart  (April, 2002)
Taking Stock   (December, 2002)
The Hijacked Election (November, 2000)
About the 2000 Election  (Several Essays) (November 2000)

 

Barack Obama and the Obama Administration

Act Two: The Struggle Continues.  (December 2, 2008)
A Battle is Won, but the War Remains.  (January 6, 2009)
A Man for the Season.  (November 18)
 

George W. Bush and the Bush Administration

The Unraveling, At Last?  (December, 2007)
Impeachment: Winning by Losing.  (March, 2007)
Who Lost New Orleans?  (September, 2005) 
The Bombs in the Basement.   (August, 2005) 
The Fall of the House of Bush (June, 2005)
A Master Morality  (March, 2005)
Bush's "Gut"  (October, 2004)

Henry and George  (June, 2004)
The cover-up that's worse than the crime (February, 2004) 
Reflections on "Black Tuesday" (9/11) (October, 2001)
 

Progressivism / Liberalism / Democrats

Stewart Lee Udall -- 1920-2010.  A Personal Memoir  (March 24, 2010)
"The Left"  (March 2009)
In a Financial Emergency, Who Do you Call?  The Democrats! (September, 2008)
Liberals and Libertarians  (May, 2007)

The Public Interest and the Limits of Volunteerism  (December, 2006)
Why Won't the Progressives Get Their Act Together?  (October, 2006)
The Democrats: Missing in Action  (March, 2006)
Right and Left: In a Nutshell.  (March, 2006) 
Randville, Rawlsburg, and New Orleans  (September, 2005)
Right vs. Left: The Elements  (March, 2005) 
The Language Trap  (February, 2005)
Good for Each, Bad for All (June, 2004) 
Strategies for Underdogs  (January, 2003)
On Patriotism  (February, 2003) 
Conscience of a Conservative  (April, 2002)
Consumer or Citizen?  (October, 2003)
Taking Stock  (December, 2002)
Mr. DeLay Goes to Washington
  (March, 2002) 
Don't Just Get Mad, Get Smart  (March, 2002)
On Civic Friendship (May, 2000) 

 

Republicans -- Right Wing


Ayn Rand's Excellent Proposal  (March 3, 2010)
Don't Ridicule the Tea Baggers -- Recruit Them  (January 2, 2010)
On Behalf of the Tea Bag Brigades: A Proposal (April 16, 2009)
Take the Money and Run (March, 2009)
Why Liberals are Not Libertarians (November, 2008)
The Road to Catastrophe (October, 2008)

Privatization: The Key to the Coming Solar Age (April, 2008)
Climate Reality Bites the Libertarians  (April 8, 2008)
My Encounter with William F. Buckley, Jr. (March, 2008)
Privatized Hell (November, 2007)
A Failed Experiment (June, 2007)
The Malleable World of the Neo-Cons (February, 2007)
Right and Left: In a Nutshell.  (March, 2006) 
Randville, Rawlsburg, and New Orleans (September, 2005)
Who Lost New Orleans? (September, 2005)
A Master Morality (March, 2005)
Bush's "Gut" (October, 2004)
Letter to a Republican Friend (August, 2004)
Suckers for Jesus. (aka: "How Would Jesus Vote?") (August, 2004)
Privatized Hell  (June, 2003)
Dear CEO: Is This Really What You Want? (March, 2003)
Junk Psychology  (June, 2002)
The State Religion  (January, 2002) 
Kill the Umpire  (September, 2001) 
 

Civil Liberties -- Dissent

Dissent: What's in it for You  (September, 2007)
On "Hating America"  (June, 2003)
Moscow on the Potomac  (November, 2002) 
Junk History as Legal Precedent  (January, 2002)
On Patriotism (January, 2002)
Free to Agree  (December, 2001)
Liberty Swap (September, 2001)
 

Moral Issues and The Law

America as a Free Fire Zone (February, 2011)
Property Rights and Public Accommodations (July, 2010)
Morality as a Plus-Sum Game...  (April, 2010)

Evil as the Absence of Empathy  (July, 2008)
Jose Padilla's Fate -- and Ours  (August, 2007)
Touch Football and Television  (April, 2007) .  (April 2007)
A Defense of Moral Relativism. (November, 2005) 
Prices and Values (August, 2005) 
When the Law Goes Flat  (July, 2004) 
John Rawls -- A Tribute  (March, 2004)

The Paradoxical "Right to Life"  (January, 2003) 
What Would Jesus Do?  (October, 2002) 
Junk Psychology  (June, 2002)
Junk History as Legal Precedent  (January, 2002)
Reflections on the Gurney (Capital Punishment)  (March, 1999)
Round Up the Usual Suspects (Gun Control) (May, 1999)

 

Science, Philosophy and Education

On the Morality of Science,  (May, 2007)
Touch Football and Television  (April, 2007)

Why Should I Pay for Someone Else's Education?  (April, 2005)
"Creationism" and the Devolution of the Intellect  (February, 2005)
Is Science Just Another Dogma?  (July, 2002)  
President of Fantasyland: Bush v. Science  (May, 2002)
John Rawls -- A Tribute  (December, 2002)
The Banalization of Genius
 (April, 2000)
Global Defense  (March, 2000)
In Defense of Research Universities (February, 1999)
Why Be Reasonable? (March, 1998)
Yes, Virginia, There is a Real World  (1996)

 

Economics

If It's Good for General Motors, Is it Good for the Rest of Us?  (May 18, 2010)
Theory vs. Reality: Why Market Absolutism Fails  (December 16, 2008)
In a Financial Crisis, Who Do You Call? The Democrats! 
(September 23, 2008)
The Outsourcing Tragedy (August 5, 2008)
Reverse Henry Fordism (June, 2008)
Market Failure: The Back of the Invisible Hand (June, 2007)
The Scorpion, The Frog, and The Corporation. (September, 2006)
Prices and Values.  (August, 2005) 
Something's Gotta Give  (January, 2005)
Symbionts and Parasites  (September, 2004) 
In the Deep Voodoo  (October, 2002)
The Oil Trap (August, 2002)
Flunking Econ. 101  (July, 2001) 
The Deserving Rich? (February, 2001) 
Sucker Economics (November, 1999)
The New Alchemy.  (July, 1999)  
Two Lessons from Russia (October, 1998)


The Environment

Nuclear Power -- Not Now, Not Ever  (March, 2011)
A Convenient Delusion (December, 2009)
Climate Reality Bites the Libertarians  (April, 2008) 

The California Wildfires and Right-Wing Smoke   (November, 2007)
Global Engineering and Climate Change  (October, 2007)
Last Chance for Civilization  (May, 2005)
Whose Trees Are These? (January 2005) 
The Environmental Fire Sale (July 2004)

Garrett Hardin -- A Tribute (October, 2003)
If It Burns, It Earns  (October, 2003)
Elegy for a Ponderosa Pine Tree  (August, 2003)
Northern Exposure  (September, 2002)
The Oil Trap (August, 2002)
My Seven Years as a Corporate Token (August, 2001)
Blissful Ignorance  (May, 2001)
Is Everything "Natural"?  (September, 2000)
Put Down that Monkey Wrench! (July, 2000)
 

Lies -- Propaganda -- Corruption

The Big Lie.  (April, 2011)
"That's Just Your Opinion"  (June, 2008)
Newspeak and the Corruption of Politics  (April, 2006)
The Language Trap  (February, 2005)
Political Propaganda:  Selling Lies Like Cigarettes    (July, 2004) 
A Modest Proposal  (February, 2003)
Newspeak Lives!  (December, 2002)
Blissful Ignorance (May, 2001)
A Bribe by Any Other Name  (April, 2001)

 

The Culture War -- The Religious Right

About this "Mormonism" Thing.  (December, 2007)
"Do You Believe in God?"  April, 2007
Through a Glass, Darkly  (November, 2005)

What a Friend We Have in Jesus  (May, 2005)   (May, 2005) 
Suckers for Jesus (How Would Jesus Vote?)   August, 2004) 
What Would Jesus Do?  (October, 2002) 
President of Fantasyland: Bush v. Science  (May, 2002)

One Nation, Under God, Divisible  (March, 2002) 
Warriors of the Lord  (November, 2001)

The Holy Land  (November, 2001)


 


Chronological Listing of Essays

These essays, which originate at The Crisis Papers (since November, 2002)
are normally published at many other progressive websites. 


2014

 

2011 -- 2013


 

2010

September 8
July 28
May 18
May 5
April 6
March 24
March 4
February 2 January 22

Fruit Flies in a Bottle.
Property Rights and Public Accommodations
If It's Good for General Motors, Is it Good for the Rest of Us?
Nolo Contendere

Morality as a Plus Sum Game
Stewart Lee Udall -- 1920-2010.  A Personal Memoir
Ayn Rand's Excellent Proposal 
American, Inc. is Here: Get With the Program.

Don't Ridicule the Tea Partyers -- Recruit Them.


 

2009

December 28
December 15
April 16
March 31
March 3 January 6
A Convenient Delusion 
The War Trap

On Behalf of the "Tea Bag Brigades:" A Proposal
"The Left"
Take the Money and Run.
A Battle is Won, but the War Remains.

 

2008


December 16
December 2
November 18
October 28
October 21
October 14
September 23
September 2
August 12
July 22
June 24
June 17
June 3
May 27
May 13

April 29
April 1
March 18
March 4
January 29
January 8

Theory vs. Reality: Why Market Absolutism Fails.
Act Two: The Struggle Continues.
Why Liberals are Not Libertarians.
Election 2008: Who Decides? The People or the Programmers? 
"Country First?" -- The Question of Loyalty
The Road to Catastrophe
In a Financial Crisis, Who Do You Call? The Democrats!  

OmiGawd, Not Another Cold War!  A Letter to My Friends in Russia.
The Outsourcing Tragedy. 
Evil as the Absence of Empathy
"That's Just Your Opinion"
Reverse Henry-Fordism.
A New Day Dawning. 
Gotcha!
Pity the Poor Mainstream Media!
Climate Reality Bites the Libertarians.
Privatization: The Key to the Coming Solar Age.
My Encounter with William F. Buckley, Jr. ...
The Great Regression -- and the Road Back.
The Gulag Comes to America: The Don Siegelman Case
Kristolnicht: The Decline of The New York Times.


2007

December 18
December 11
November 27
November 20
November 13
November 6
October 23
October 9
September 11
August 28
August 14
July 3
June 19
June 5
May 22
May 15
May 1
April 24
April 10
March 13
March 6
February 20
January 30
January 16
About This “Mormonism” Thing.
The Unraveling, At Last?
Twenty-Twenty Hindsight, Blinded Foresight

Privatized Hell Revisited.
The American People are Beginning To Get It.
The California Wildfires -- and Right-Wing Smoke
TO: The Free World – FROM: The American People – RE: HELP!
 

Global Engineering and Climate Change
Dissent: What's in it for You
Jose Padilla's Fate -- and Ours

We've Seen All This Before.
Election Fraud: Where's the Outrage?  
Market Failure: The Back of the Invisible Hand
A Failed Experiment.
Is the Public Finally Beginning to "Get It"? 
Liberals and Libertarians
On the Morality of Science.
Touch Football and Television.
"Do You Believe in God?"
Impeachment: Winning by Losing.
Oh What a Lovely (Cold) War!
The Malleable World of the Neo Cons.
Only Americans Can Restore America's Honor
Mainstream Media to Bloggers: Bug Off! 


2006

December 28
December 12
September 12
August 22
August 8
June 27
June 13
June 6
May 30
April 25
April 11
March 14
February 21
February 7
January 24
January 10
January 3
Snobocracy: When “The Right People” Run Washington
The Public Interest and the Limits of Volunteerism.
The Scorpion, the Frog, and the Corporation.
All The News that Fits the Bush Agenda. 
O Canada! 
What About The Russians?  Personal Encounters.
Where are our Heroes Today?
Debunking the Debunker.
Swords into Plowshares.
The 9/11 Conspiracy: A Skeptic’s View
Newspeak and the Corruption of Politics.   
Right and Left: In a Nutshell. 
Perception is Reality
The View from Abroad: A Personal Reflection
“Evidence? We Don’t Want Your Stinkin’ Evidence!”
The Erosion of Trust 
In 2006, Election Fraud is the Keystone Issue.


2005

Nov. 29
Nov. 22
Nov. 1
Oct. 18
Sept. 20
Sept. 6
August 23
August 9
July 5
June 7
May 24
May 10
April 5
March 28
March 15
March 8
Feb. 22
Feb. 1
Jan. 25
Jan. 25
Jan. 8
A Moral Philosophy for Progressives. 
Through a Glass, Darkly.
Bird Flu is Real – and You’re On Your Own. 
The Illusion of Normality
Who Lost New Orleans? 
Randville, Rawlsburg, and New Orleans. 
The Bombs in the Basement. 
Prices and Values. 
Hinges of History
The Fall of the House of Bush.
What a Friend We Have in Jesus! 
Last Chance for Civilization
Why Should I Pay for Someone Else's Education? 
For Tax Refuseniks: A Modest Proposal.
A Master Morality 
Right vs. Left: The Elements 
The Language Trap 
"Creationism" and the Devolution of the Intellect. 
Has the Case for Election Fraud been Refuted?
Whose Trees are These? 
Something's Gotta Give


2004

Dec. 21
Dec. 7
Nov. 24
Nov. 8
Nov. 1
Oct. 11
Sept. 27
Sept. 13
Aug. 23
Aug. 16
July 26
July 19
July 13
July 13
June 22
June 8
May 25
Feb. 17
Jan. 19 
Jan. 3

The Democratic Party as "The Washington Generals."
The Indelible Evil of the Iraq War. 
Why we must not "Get Over It"
Do We Still Have a Democracy?
Defeating a "Touch-Screen" Theft of the Election.
George Bush's 'Gut'.
Symbionts and Parasites.  
Pravda on the Potomac. 
A Letter to a Republican Friend.
Suckers for Jesus. 
When the Law Goes Flat 
The Assault upon Trained Intelligence.
Political Propaganda: Selling Lies like Cigarettes. 
The Environmental Fire Sale
Good for Each, Bad for All. 
Henry and George
The Vulnerable Giant (Revised)
The cover-up that's worse than the crime
The Oil Trap (Revisited)
Don't Give Up on the  Media


2003


2002

December
Dec. 29
Dec. 19
Dec. 5
Nov. 19
Oct. 16
Oct.  3
Sept. 20
Sept.
July    4
June 17
June 10
May 31
May 23
May 7
May 7
April 9
March 26
March 17
March 14
March 10
March 8
February
Feb. 12
Jan. 22
Jan. 20
Jan. 10

John Rawls -- A Tribute 
A Bribe by Any Other Name    
Newspeak Lives!
  
Taking Stock
   
Moscow on the Potomac  
In Deep Voodoo  
What Would Jesus Do?  
Despotism by Accident  
Northern Exposure
Is Science Just Another Dogma?  
Junk Psychology  
Where's the Outrage?  
Flunking Econ. 101  
The Paradoxical "Right to Life"  
Forgive U.S. our Trespasses
President of Fantasyland: Bush v. Science  
Don't Just Get Mad, Get Smart  
One Nation, Under God, Divisible  
About Those Polls  
Following the Light  
Global Defense  
Mr. DeLay Goes to Washington 
The Press and Party Symbiosis
The Deserving Rich? 
The New Alchemy  
Junk History as Legal Precedent  
The State Religion
  
 


1998 -- 2001


Dr. Ernest Partridge is a consultant, writer and lecturer in the field of Environmental Ethics and Public Policy. He has taught Philosophy at the University of California, and in Utah, Colorado and Wisconsin. He publishes the website, "The Online Gadfly" (www.igc.org/gadfly) and co-edits the progressive website, "The Crisis Papers" (www.crisispapers.org).  Dr. Partridge can be contacted at: gadfly@igc.org .